chitinous adj : of or resembling chitin
- Made of, pertaining to, or resembling chitin.
Chitin (C8H13O5N)n () is a long-chain polymer of a N-acetylglucosamine, a derivative of glucose, and it is found in many places throughout the natural world. It is the main component of the cell walls of fungi, the exoskeletons of arthropods, such as crustaceans (like the crab, lobster and shrimp) and the insects, including ants, beetles and butterflies, the radula of mollusks and the beaks of the cephalopods, including squid and octopuses. Chitin has also proven useful for several medical and industrial purposes. Chitin is a biological substance which may be compared to the polysaccharide cellulose and to the protein keratin. Although keratin is a protein, and not a carbohydrate, both keratin and chitin have similar structural functions.
Chemistry, physical properties and biological functionChitin is a polysaccharide; it is synthesized from units of N-acetylglucosamine (more completely, N-acetyl-D-glucos-2-amine). These units form covalent β-1,4 linkages (similar to the linkages between glucose units forming cellulose). Chitin may therefore be described as cellulose with one hydroxyl group on each monomer substituted with an acetylamine group. This allows for increased hydrogen bonding between adjacent polymers, giving the chitin-polymer matrix increased strength.
In its unmodified form, chitin is translucent, pliable, resilient and quite tough. In arthropods, however, it is often modified, becoming embedded in a hardened proteinaceous matrix, which forms much of the exoskeleton. In its pure form it is leathery, but when encrusted in calcium carbonate it becomes much harder. The difference between the unmodified and modified forms can be seen by comparing the body wall of a caterpillar (unmodified) to a beetle (modified).
Chitin is one of many naturally occurring polymers. Its breakdown may be catalyzed by enzymes called chitinases, secreted by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi, and produced by some plants. Some of these microorganisms have receptors to simple sugars from the decomposition of chitin. If chitin is detected, they then produce enzymes to digest it by cleaving the glycosidic bonds in order to convert it to simple sugars and ammonia.
Chemically, chitin is closely related to chitosan (a more water-soluble derivative of chitin). It is also closely related to cellulose in that it is a long unbranched chain of glucose derivatives. Both materials contribute structure and strength, protecting the organism.
EtymologyThe English word "chitin" comes from the French word "chitine", which first appeared in 1836. These words were derived from the Latin word "chitōn", meaning mollusk. That is either influenced by, or related to the Greek word khitōn, meaning "tunic" or "frock", the Central Semitic word "*kittan", the Akkadian words "kitû" or "kita’um", meaning flax or linen, and the Sumerian word "gada" or "gida".
A similar word, "chiton", refers to a marine animal with a protective shell (also known as a "sea cradle").
IndustrialChitin is used industrially in many processes. It is used in water purification, and as an additive to thicken and stabilize foods and pharmaceuticals. It also acts as a binder in dyes, fabrics, and adhesives. Industrial separation membranes and ion-exchange resins can be made from chitin. Processes to size and strengthen paper employ chitin.
MedicineChitin's properties as a flexible and strong material make it favourable as surgical thread. Its biodegradibility means it wears away with time as the wound heals. Moreover, chitin has some unusual properties that accelerate healing of wounds in humans. Chitin has even been used as a stand-alone wound-healing agent. Chitin is used to make Chitosan, a product with numerous commercial and possible biomedical uses. Its most famous use is as a weight loss product.
Occupations associated with high environmental chitin levels, such as shellfish processors, are prone to high incidences of asthma. Recent studies have suggested that chitin may play a role in a possible pathway in human allergic disease. Specifically, mice treated with chitin develop an allergic response, characterized by a build-up of interleukin-4 expressing innate immune cells. Treatment with a chitinase enzyme abolishes the response. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v447/n7140/edsumm/e070503-13.html
AgricultureMost recent studies point out that chitin is a good inductor for defense mechanisms in plants. It was recently tested as a fertilizer that can help plants develop healthy immune responses, and have a much better yield and life expectancy.
- Martín-Gil FJ, Leal JA, Gómez-Miranda B, Martín-Gil J, Prieto A, Ramos-Sánchez MC. "Low temperature thermal behaviour of chitins and chitin-glucans". Thermochim. Acta, 1992, vol. 211, pp. 241-254
chitinous in Belarusian (Tarashkevitsa): Хіцін
chitinous in Bulgarian: Хитин
chitinous in Catalan: Quitina
chitinous in Czech: Chitin
chitinous in Danish: Kitin
chitinous in German: Chitin
chitinous in Modern Greek (1453-): Χιτίνη
chitinous in Spanish: Quitina
chitinous in Esperanto: Kitino
chitinous in French: Chitine
chitinous in Galician: Quitina
chitinous in Korean: 키틴
chitinous in Croatian: Hitin
chitinous in Ido: Chitino
chitinous in Icelandic: Kítín
chitinous in Italian: Chitina
chitinous in Hebrew: כיטין
chitinous in Latin: Chitina
chitinous in Lithuanian: Chitinas
chitinous in Hungarian: Kitin
chitinous in Dutch: Chitine
chitinous in Japanese: キチン質
chitinous in Norwegian: Kitin
chitinous in Polish: Chityna
chitinous in Portuguese: Quitina
chitinous in Russian: Хитин
chitinous in Simple English: Chitin
chitinous in Slovak: Chitín
chitinous in Slovenian: Hitin
chitinous in Serbian: Хитин
chitinous in Serbo-Croatian: Hitin
chitinous in Finnish: Kitiini
chitinous in Swedish: Kitin
chitinous in Ukrainian: Хітин
chitinous in Chinese: 甲殼素